Marijuana inside your Brain

Marijuana Your Body Makes – Endocannabinoids

Inside your body are millions of cannabinoid receptors. They have one purpose: to receive and process neurotransmitters known as cannabinoids – substances your body naturally produces (called endocannabinoids), and named for the fact that they are found in the cannabis plant, or marijuana.1, 2

In fact, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (referred to simply as CB1) is one of the most abundant G-protein coupled receptors in the human brain.3

CB1 receptors operate in a way that scientists used to believe was impossible: retrograde signaling. That means cannabinoids are the only known brain signals that travel BACKWARDS across the synapse to regulate the signaling neuron.4

Typically, neurotransmitters flow in one direction: from the signaling neuron to the receptor neuron. Messages can travel in both directions during the growth and development of the nervous system, but adult neurons can only fire in one direction. Recently scientists have discovered that cannabinoids actually travel the opposite way – called retrograde signaling.4

When a receptor neuron is being over-stimulated, it can actually send a message backwards – to the signaling neuron, telling it to calm down, and stop signaling so much. The only neurotransmitters that have been found to do this in adult neurons are cannabinoids.4

Why Is There No Lethal Dose For Cannabis?

Cannabis appears to work completely differently in our brains and neurons than any other known substance.

Imagine you have two people talking: a speaker and a listener. Now let’s simulate a drug like morphine on this conversation. Unknown to the speaker, someone has put ear plugs in the ears of the listener. The speaker keeps talking, but the listener doesn’t hear a word.5

Maybe the speaker would start to speak louder, trying to be heard. Maybe they would scream, shout, and wear themselves out trying to be heard by the listener – but all to no effect, since the listener has ear plugs in.

Instead, let’s simulate cannabis on this conversation: Rather than blocking the listener from hearing, we go directly to the speaker and tell them to stop speaking for a bit.67

Now there is no miscommunication, and there is no wasted effort. The speaker simply knows that the listener doesn’t want to listen right now, and so stops trying. This is why cannabis is so effective at treating pain and inflammation. It doesn’t block the pain signal from being “heard”, but rather it can tell pain neurons to quiet down and stop passing on their message.6

The endocannabinoid system allows receiving neurons to regulate their own incoming signals. Unlike conventional neurotransmitters, cannabinoids are neither excitatory (causing more stimulation) nor inhibitory (causing less stimulation) – yet at the same time they are both, since they modulate the incoming signal.8 Cannabinoids simply turn on or off other neurotransmitters, so if they act on an excitatory signal, they function as inhibitors. This is how they treat symptoms like chronic pain, post traumatic stress, and seizures. If they act on an inhibitory signal they function as stimulants, and this is how they treat symptoms like depression or lack of hunger.

Since this is a natural process in our neurons, cannabis based medicines are proving to be extremely effective. There is no lethal dose for any known cannabinoid. This is also due to another key feature of cannabinoids as neurotransmitters, as we will see in the next section.

Water Soluble Vs Fat Soluble

Structure of a typical chemical synapse

Structure of a typical chemical synapse

Conventional neurotransmitters are water-soluble, meaning they dissolve in water and have polarity (they have positive and negative poles).6

Neurotransmitters are usually stored in concentrated packets waiting to be released by the neuron. These vesicles are positioned to release their neurotransmitters very close to their receptors. As already mentioned, they travel only in one direction: from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron.9

When a neuron fires, it sends an electrical signal down its axon to its tips (presynaptic terminals). This causes those packets of neurotransmitters to be released across the gap (synapse) to the recipient (postsynaptic neuron).9

However, cannabinoids are fat-soluble, meaning they DON’T dissolve in water, and they lack conventional polarity. They also are not pre-made or stored anywhere in your neurons.10

When needed, endocannabinoids are rapidly synthesized from components (mostly fats, or lipids) that make up the postsynaptic cell membrane. Then they are released from all over the cell and make their way back to CB1 receptors on the presynaptic neuron.11

Oil and water don’t mix, and the space around your neurons (the extracellular environment) is mostly water. This means that endocannabinoids released from one neuron don’t travel very far, and tend to travel perfectly backwards across the synapse to the signaling neuron (known as retrograde signaling).12

For this reason, cannabinoids and endocannabinoids cannot diffuse or spread throughout the watery extracellular environment of your brain and nervous system. Hence the lack of toxicity with no known lethal dose.1213

Cannabis is an Effective Treatment

Rather than stopping the receiver (postsynaptic neuron) from receiving and passing on the message, cannabinoids regulate the sender of the message (the presynaptic neuron).67

This is why cannabinoids are so effective at treating all kinds of neurological issues; from chronic pain 14, to post traumatic stress (PTSD) 15, to phobias – cannabinoids effectively “turn down the volume” of these undesirable signals.6

In addition, your body only produces and releases endocannabinoids when neurons fire repeatedly – five or even ten times in a row.6 This means it allows you to “get the message” but it stops the message from becoming redundant. This also helps calm the kind of neuronal storms that are associated with epileptic seizures and hyperactivity.16

Yet at the same time, there are little to no side-effects because of the method of action. The signaling neuron won’t exhaust its neurotransmitters in a vain attempt to be heard, and those un-received signals won’t dissolve into the intracellular water – spreading throughout your nervous system. Remember, oil and water don’t mix. Unlike other neurotransmitters which are water soluble, cannabinoids are fat-soluble.

Cannabis is Required For Health

PTSD

Cannabis has proven effective in treating PTSD

Experiments suggest that insufficient release of endocannabinoids is perhaps the root cause of chronic anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.17

Large concentrations of cannabinoid receptors have been observed in several of the brains pain centers, indicating that cannabinoids are integral to your body’s own management of pain.18

Cannabinoid receptors (specifically CB1) are the most abundant G-protein coupled receptors in the human brain. Areas responsible for complex motor functions, cognition, learning, memory – are all dense with CB1 cannabinoid receptors.6

Clearly cannabinoids are an important neurotransmitter. However, unlike typical neurotransmitters, they are not pre-synthesized nor are they stored in the neurons. They must be synthesized by components within the cell membrane when they are needed.

So if your diet and lifestyle, environmental factors, or genetics have left your neurons deficient in healthy fats and other components – they cannot produce enough endocannabinoids to modulate signals for pain, fear, desire, learning, cognition, and so on.

This is why cannabis, as a health supplement, is so important for optimal human health. Not only does the cannabis plant contain cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) that exactly match our own, but the plant also contains the nutrition our bodies need to produce our own endocannabinoids.

This article has only focused on the effects of the CB1 receptors in your brain and nervous system. Yet scientists have also identified cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2 receptors) which exist in your immune system, reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, peripheral nervous system, and even in your brain as well.

Our next article will focus on modern research and findings into the functions and benefits of this second major discovery.

References:


1.
Devane W, Dysarz F, Johnson M, Melvin L, Howlett A. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Mol Pharmacol. 1988;34(5):605-613. [PubMed]
2.
Pacher P, Bátkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58(3):389-462. [PubMed]
3.
Callén                L, Moreno        E, Barroso-Chinea P, et al. Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Form Functional Heteromers in Brain*. Journal of Biological Chemistry. http://www.jbc.org/content/287/25/20851.full. Published April 24, 2012. Accessed November 5, 2016.
4.
AC and Regehr WG K. Retrograde signaling by endocannabinoids. – PubMed – NCBI . PubMed. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12049940. Published June 12, 2002. Accessed November 5, 2016.
5.
Dugger A. The Neurochemical Basis for Opiate Effects | Study.com. Study.com. http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-neurochemical-basis-for-opiate-effects.html. Accessed November 5, 2016.
6.
Nicoll R, Alger B. The brain’s own marijuana. Sci Am. 2004;291(6):68-75. [PubMed]
7.
Harkany T, Mackie K, Doherty P. Wiring and firing neuronal networks: endocannabinoids take center stage. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2008;18(3):338-345. [PubMed]
8.
Cannabinoid – Endocannabinoids – Function – Retrograde signal. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabinoid#Function. Accessed November 6, 2016.
9.
Lodish H, Matsudaira P, Berk A. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th ed. Macmillan; 2004.
10.
Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review | The British Journal of Psychiatry. The British Journal of Psychiatry. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/178/2/101.full. Published February 2001. Accessed November 5, 2016.
11.
Biology of endocannabinoid synthesis system . Science Direct. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1098882308000890. Published September 2009. Accessed November 5, 2016.
12.
Cannabinoid – Endocannabinoids – Function – Range. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabinoid#Function. Published November 1, 2016. Accessed November 5, 2016.
13.
Dewey W. Cannabinoid pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1986;38(2):151-178. [PubMed]
14.
Clauw DJ, Litinas E, Boehnke KF. Medical Cannabis Use Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Medication Use in a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey of Patients With Chronic Pain. jpain. 2016;17(6):739-744. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526590016005678.
15.
Akirav I, Segev A, Mizrachi Zer-Aviv T. Cannabinoids and post-traumatic stress disorder: clinical and preclinical evidence for treatment and prevention. Behavioral Pharmacology. 2016;27(7):561-569. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000253 [Source]
16.
Kwon D. Can Cannabis Treat Epileptic Seizures? Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/can-cannabis-treat-epileptic-seizures/. Published January 22, 2016. Accessed November 5, 2016.
17.
Riebe C, Wotjak C. Endocannabinoids and stress. Stress. 2011;14(4):384-397. [PubMed]
18.
The Endocannabinoid System and Pain. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834283/. Published December 8, 2009. Accessed November 6, 2016.
EndoCannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid System and why so few people know about it

If you’d asked me a year ago about the endocannabinoid system, I would have stared at you blankly while uttering a confused ‘endo-what?’

That’s not to say I’m someone who has no clue about health. As an ex-bodyworker, my training involved learning about all the major systems in the body, or so I thought. But before entering the world of medical cannabis, the endocannabinoid system just wasn’t on my radar.

And I’m not alone. Most people I know have no knowledge of this integral biological system. And like me, with even the briefest of explanations, their eyes light up in wonder and curiosity. It’s as if suddenly everything makes sense, with the proverbial ‘aha’ moment – “Oh right, that’s why cannabis helps so many conditions’.

So, a year into my cannabis immersion, I wanted to get to the bottom of the question: why do so few people know about the endocannabinoid system (ECS)?

Scientists discover endocannabinoid system through studying Cannabis

A first clue lies in the manner in which the endocannabinoid system1 was discovered. Since the 1960s, scientists had been studying the active compounds in cannabis; and it was through their quest to understand how THC worked in the body that they found the first cannabinoid receptor in 1988.

This was followed by the identification of the body’s own cannabis-like chemicals that, like THC, fitted into the cannabinoid receptors causing physiological changes in the body. The resulting communication network located primarily in the brain, central nervous and immune system became known as the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Its role – to act as a biological regulator, ensuring that balance is achieved in the body.

The ECS is implicated in everything from chronic pain, tumor growth, metabolic diseases, anxiety, and epilepsy. Scientists have seen that compounds within the cannabis plant interact with the ECS, and in the process ease symptoms such as nausea during chemotherapy, chronic pain and can even reduce epileptic seizures.

Schedule 1 status restricts research

And yet, these very compounds are classified as having no accepted medical use2, a decision made prior to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system.

According to Greg Gerdeman, Assistant Professor in Biology at Eckerd College in Florida, “The thing is that the schedule 1 status is so extreme that it creates all of these barriers to research. The DEA has stonewalled researchers to be able to look at herbal cannabis and study its outcomes. For this reason, just the whole intensity of the scheduling has made it difficult to make progress.”3

By progress we can talk in terms of understanding the full extent of the workings of the ECS, researching therapeutic properties of cannabis that are not related to its abuse, and getting herbal cannabis-based medication through all the appropriate protocols; such as double-blind, randomized, three-stage clinical trials.

Doctors lack knowledge

This lack of herbal cannabis medication on the market is a major contributing factor to why so little is known about the ECS in medical circles. According to Gerdeman, an average doctor in the US gets much of their information about advances in medicine from drug reps who have a product under development.

Right now, due in part to the schedule 1 status, selling herbal cannabis products is not on the pharmaceutical companies’ agenda, and so the only information that reaches doctors about cannabis is regarding its potential harm.

However, in states and countries where medical cannabis has been legalized and commercial cannabis-based products are on the market; doctors are clamoring for more information about the ECS and the medicinal uses of cannabis. In Israel, for instance, the Ministry of Health’s Medical Cannabis Unit trains doctors so that they can prescribe medical cannabis for patients with qualifying conditions.

Medical students sitting and talking at the university

Is the endocannabinoid system taught at medical school?

But what about the doctors of the future? Will the endocannabinoid system feature on their med school curriculum?

Back in 2013, David B. Allen MD commissioned a survey in which all the medical schools in the US were asked whether they included the ECS within their syllabus.4 Only 13% were found to teach it in any way, with Dr. Allen declaring that “research and education of medical students involving the ECS is being intentionally restricted by politics.”

This finding sent shock waves through the medical cannabis community, with many wondering what hope there was for an integration of medical cannabis into the healthcare system if most health professionals were unaware of the physiological system underpinning its effectiveness.

Moving in right direction

Thankfully, four years on, there are signs of progress. According to Gerdeman: “Awareness is growing. The neuroscience textbook that I teach my undergraduate neuroscience course with, and is the most popular undergraduate neuroscience textbook … has three pages on endocannabinoids. It cites my work and others calling it, ‘The most exciting discovery in cell signaling in the past several years.’”

In other countries such as the UK and Spain, the endocannabinoid system is taught in many if not all medical schools, although surprisingly in Israel, it is not.

Could more knowledge of the ECS change cannabis scheduling?

So, whatever way you look at it, the therapeutic future of both the endocannabinoid system and the cannabis plant are defined by what is essentially outdated drug scheduling. But could a greater knowledge of the ECS allow cannabis to come out of its 50-year hinterland?

Gerdeman thinks this could be the case. “Discovering the ECS is liberating cannabis from the schedule 1 paradigm where it hasn’t really ever belonged,” he says. “And naturally it feeds into the narrative that cannabis in some shape or form could be beneficial to so many different people.”

It would follow then that as more knowledge of the endocannabinoid system seeps out of the research labs into the knowledge bank of doctors and the public at large, a change in scheduling of cannabis might just follow.

So, it’s time to go forth and publicize our neglected, biological best friend, the endocannabinoid system. Get informed, spread the word, and let’s help give the ECS the recognition it deserves.

About the Author:

Mary Biles is a British freelance writer-blogger and wandering spirit, mostly based in the Andalusian capital of Seville, Southern Spain. She is passionate about the healing potential of cannabis and is currently a guest blogger for CBD oil innovators Endoca.

 


References:

1.
Nicke D. Marijuana Your Body Makes – Endocannabinoids | The Cannapedia. The Cannapedia. http://thecannapedia.org/marijuana-your-body-makes-endocannabinoids/. Published November 5, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2017.
2.
Controlled Substances Act – Wikipedia. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_Substances_Act. Accessed June 18, 2017.
3.
Gregory Gerdeman. Biology | Eckerd College. https://www.eckerd.edu/biology/faculty/gerdeman/. Accessed June 18, 2017.
4.
B. Allen, M.D. D. Survey Shows Low Acceptance of the Science of the ECS (Endocannabinoid System). Outword Magazine. http://www.outwordmagazine.com/inside-outword/glbt-news/1266-survey-shows-low-acceptance-of-the-science-of-the-ecs-endocannabinoid-system. Accessed June 18, 2017.

The USA is Importing Hemp Seeds and Expertise from Europe in 2017!

Hana Gabrielová has been studying and working with hemp for longer than most Americans have even known of the plant. She began her Bachelor’s Thesis on Hemp Agronomy back in 1997, having been inspired as a youth by the Jack Herer classic: The Emperor Wears No Clothes. These days, she teaches the science of hemp at Universities across Europe – and this year she’s finally coming to America!

1999 is the year Hana graduated with her Bachelor degree in Sustainable agronomy, and the same year that Konopa – the first hemp-centered non-profit environmental organization in the Czech Republic, was founded. Konopa aims to spread knowledge about hemp as a crop. Incidentally, Konopa is also a play on the Czech slang-word for hemp: konopí.

In 2001, Hana moved to Prague to work more closely with Konopa. It was in Prague that she helped Konopa make the first “day seminar” for farmers about hemp, together with the Institute of Agricultural Economics and Information (IAEI). To this day, Konopa continues providing hemp training, consulting, and a large publishing library of hemp agronomy.

In 2004, Hana started to work with Greenpeace in spreading awareness of the dangers and cost of Uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, but in 2010 returned to hemp as a solution, and established her company, Hempoint S.R.O. – Nowadays she is helping with ongoing research into using hemp to remediate the soils of strip-mining operations and garbage dump sites. So far, hemp not only grows where no other crops will, it also rejuvenates the soil and allows more demanding crops to be planted afterward.

Hana has spoken up in defense of hemp before the United Nations. In fact, in a statement to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, she reminded delegates that the original UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 included the proviso that it “shall not apply to the cultivation of the cannabis plant exclusively for industrial purposes (fiber and seed) or horticultural purposes.” (Article 28, paragraph 2)

As she pointed out in that statement, not only is industrial hemp not illegal under any UN convention, it is also a massive boon in helping to achieve the goals of the Conference of Parties on Climate Change and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development:

  • Hemp crops store CO2 emissions
  • produce renewable material which can sustainably replace trees in making paper
  • can be turned into biodegradable plastic
  • hemp can be used instead of concrete for building
  • and the rich seeds of hemp represent a meaningful nutritional contribution to addressing world hunger

But that’s what Hana does in her spare time.

On any typical work day, you’ll find her flying to Greece to help establish a hemp farmer co-operative, or at Mendel University in Brno teaching biotechnology students how to grow and cultivate hemp for use in future-tech. She also regularly meets with hemp farmers in the field to help them improve their methods and practices, as well as developing market sectors that will buy the hemp crop directly from farmers. That goal has taken her as far as the slopes of Nepal, where hemp doesn’t have to be farmed since it grows wild naturally. Entrepreneurs in Nepal have been gathering the wild hemp and turning it into all manner of consumer goods: goods which Hana buys from them to sell on a global market. She has even created a company to help in this regard: Hempoint.

Hempoint is a business which grows hemp in cooperation with farmers and produces food products made from hemp seeds, fiber, and flowers. Hempoint offers hands-on consulting along with the sourcing and distribution of hemp seeds to local farmers.

That’s what is bringing Hana to the USA.

Bija Hemp, a Colorado-grown company, specializes in the cultivation of industrial hemp across the United States. As part of that vision, they have arranged to bring Hana Gabrielová to speak directly with Colorado farmers who are planting Bija Hemp seed in 2017. This will be her first trip to the USA, and it’s no coincidence that hemp is what brought her here.

Hana recently imported the US Patient Focused Certification (PFC) into Europe, and she is the PFC Director for Europe. PFC establishes quality standards in cannabis cultivation, production, distribution and laboratory analyses, as well as employee training and educational materials. PFC helps to define the processes, procedures, and materials to ensure that hemp products are of consistent quality, are free of harmful substances, and have their own unique identity, so they can be identified if necessary at the retail market.

In turn, she is repaying that generosity by sharing her knowledge and experience with US hemp farmers – and she’s bringing friends too! Joining her will be experts from the Ukrainian Hemp Institute (UHI) – an organization with one of the longest unbroken and documented histories of hemp cultivation and research dating back to 1931.

“I’m coming to Colorado to bring that experience from Europe, to work with both the University and the farmers to create an ongoing research project,” she told me. “I know the plant, but they know the climate and the soil.”

The University she is referring to is Adams State University in Alamosa, Colorado. Thanks to Dr. Beverlee McClure, President of Adams State University, and thanks also to Bija Hemp; Hana will be working directly with both the University and the local farmers to develop proper procedures for farming hemp in the region, as well as a University curriculum based around industrial hemp.

Bija Hemp have partnered with Adams State University and the Hoban Law Group to organize the United States first fully Farm Bill compliant hemp seed importation. In addition to hemp seeds, they are importing the vast libraries of knowledge from Europe, as well as the enthusiasm and experience of pioneers like Hana Gabrielová.

Meetup with her at the NoCo Hemp Expo in Loveland, Colorado from March 31st-April 1st, 2017. Or contact Bija Hemp to find out how you can attend the private presentations she will be giving throughout Colorado in the first weeks of April 2017: info@bijahemp.com

Come be a part of History in the making!

 

A New Hope for Veterans with PTSD

Two million Americans have served in Iraq and Afghanistan, and it is estimated that 30 percent of them have returned with PTSD 1. That means the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has been overwhelmed with more than 600,000 PTSD patients, and in response, they are over-prescribing opiates. Despite treatment, an average of 22 veterans commit suicide each day.

While it is normal to experience stress after a trauma, PTSD sufferers seem caught in an endless loop of reliving the trauma and overreacting to similar, yet ordinary events in daily life. The simplest and most innocent event can trigger nightmares, violent reactions, or even a full-blown flashback. For those suffering from PTSD, it is not uncommon for them to avoid any situation that might trigger them, often withdrawing from friendships, relationships, and life in general. Suicide is an all too common outcome for these returning heroes with wounds that can’t be seen.

The current treatments include therapy and prescription opiates. For this reason, veterans get addicted to prescription drugs at a much higher rate than civilians. NIDA reports that prescriptions for opioids written by military physicians quadrupled between 2001 and 2009, with devastating effects. On average, 2,500 veterans commit suicide each year. But many are turning to Cannabis as an effective treatment for their PTSD.

Because Cannabis is still illegal at the Federal level, the VA refuses to prescribe it. On their website, the VA claims that marijuana is actually harmful to individuals with PTSD 2, and veterans found to be using Cannabis will lose their benefits 3. In fact, VA doctors are not even allowed to discuss the topic of medical marijuana with patients 4.

A New Hope

Dr. Raphael Mechoulam is one of the most respected neuroscientists in Israel. In the 1960’s, he identified THC as the psychoactive compound in marijuana, and in 1971 he successfully synthesized it 5. Decades later, in the 1980’s, he demonstrated that cannabis was a safe and effective treatment for epilepsy in humans 6, then in the 1990’s, he identified endogenous cannabinoids produced within the body which regulate a wide range of psychological and physiological functions. For more than 50 years, Mechoulam has been studying the Cannabis plant and the way its compounds interact with the human body. He seems to think Cannabis would be an effective treatment for PTSD and has applied to conduct research on this topic. In 2011, Mechoulam published a study that claimed cannabinoids appear to be a “magic-bullet” in treating traumatic brain injury 7.

The endocannabinoid system, or ECS, is a network of cannabinoid receptors found throughout every vertebrate’s brain and body. It turns out that the ECS is integrally related to memory, specifically memory extinction. Memory extinction is the normal, healthy process of removing associations from stimuli. Some researchers, such as Dr. Robert Melamede, believe that endogenous cannabinoids found in mother’s milk help babies forget and recover from the trauma of childbirth.

This has profound implications for patients with PTSD, who have trouble forgetting traumatic events. Dr. Mechoulam explained experiments conducted on mice which were given an electric shock combined with a certain noise. Like Pavlov’s dogs, the mice are conditioned to react to the noise as if they have been shocked even when the noise is played by itself. After a few days of hearing just the noise without the shock, the mice eventually remove that association naturally. However, mice bred with a deficient ECS simply never forget – they continue to cringe at the noise indefinitely, whether they receive an electric shock or not 8,9.

Conversely, mice administered phytocannabinoids (from the Cannabis plant) show a much-improved ability to “decouple” the memory of the sound with the trauma of the electric shock.

Killer Painkillers

“The United States is in the midst of an opioid addiction crisis,” says Dr. Dustin Sulak.
Prescription opioid abuse and addiction is actually a much bigger problem than heroin addiction in the US. In 2014 there were 11,000 overdose deaths from heroin, however, there were 19,000 overdose deaths from prescription opiates – nearly twice as many.

What’s worse, nearly 80 percent of heroin users in the US reported that they began on prescription painkillers before progressing to heroin use, and 45 percent of heroin users are currently addicted to prescription painkillers. “So this problem is largely starting in the doctor’s office,” says Dr. Sulak.

According to a recent Army study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, nearly half of all troops who have come home from Afghanistan and Iraq are coping with chronic pain 10. Veterans with PTSD are more likely to be prescribed more than one opioid, and to receive the highest dose 11. This only compounds the problems for veterans who suffer from both chronic pain and PTSD. They are prescribed one type of opioid for their pain and another type of opioid for their PTSD. Your body builds a tolerance to opioids, and so over time, you need to be prescribed more and more. This is the downward spiral that ensnares far too many of our veterans today.

Cannabis, Opioid Addiction, and PTSD – A Magic Bullet?

According to reports from Doctors and researchers like Dr. Sulak, Cannabis is an effective treatment for chronic pain in and of itself. Administering Cannabis and opioids together results in a “greater-than-additive anti-pain effect” 12. As if that weren’t enough, Cannabis also prevents the body from building a tolerance to the opioids resulting in dose escalation, and it helps treat the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Simply legalizing medical marijuana is enough to reduce opioid overdose deaths dramatically. In fact, according to the Journal of the American Medical Association, States that had legalized medical Cannabis showed a 25 percent reduction in opioid overdose deaths compared with states where Cannabis is still illegal 13.

Just like Dr. Mechoulam’s traumatized mice, traumatized veterans have shown significant improvements in their symptoms of PTSD after consuming Cannabis. Some veterans report that marijuana helps them manage anxiety, insomnia, and nightmares 14. Mike Whiter, a former Marine who switched from prescription drugs to medical marijuana, told CBS, “I went from being an anxious mess to numbing myself with the pills they were giving me. Cannabis helped me get out of the hole I was in. I started to talk to people and get over my social anxiety.” 15

Cannabis provides all of these benefits without any of the seeming side effects. “Cannabis? The worst it’s ever made me do is be happy,” says one veteran in the Vice series Weediquette16 There has never been a recorded death caused by Cannabis, ever. There is no known toxic dose for any cannabinoid, and therefore it is impossible to overdose on Cannabis.

“Those pills, they take your soul away,” says veteran Ryan Begin, in reference to prescription opioids. “They are murdering veterans every day by giving them those cocktails of pills. [Cannabis] is a solution to that problem. It is safe as shit! People don’t kill themselves, people don’t kill other people, people don’t kill their families. This is love in this little joint right here. Love.”

Despite mounting evidence and countless vocal examples like veteran Ryan Begin, Cannabis remains illegal Federally, and therefore unavailable to veterans through the VA. We hear politicians try to demonize this medicine in statements and press conferences, and the DEA has near free reign to write their own rules and prosecute citizens and veterans alike for saving their own lives. But there is hope on the horizon.

The First Clinical Trial

2017 saw the start of the first placebo-controlled, triple-blind, randomized crossover study on the effects of smoked marijuana on veterans with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD 17,18. We don’t need to wait for the results of this study before we take action to help our veterans.

If you support our troops, don’t forget to support them even after they’ve finished serving. Real change will only come when everyday citizens like you and I begin to educate ourselves and speak up. Check the facts stated in this article and prove to yourself whether or not this is true. Then take action! Share this article with a friend, write a letter to Congress, or contact your local representative.

Don’t wait until another 22 veterans take their own lives tomorrow.

References:

1.
Veterans Face Dangerous Combination of Painkillers and PTSD – Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. http://drugfree.org/learn/drug-and-alcohol-news/veterans-face-dangerous-combination-of-painkillers-and-ptsd/. Published November 11, 2013. Accessed March 11, 2017.
2.
Veterans A. Marijuana Use and PTSD among Veterans – PTSD: National Center for PTSD. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/co-occurring/marijuana_use_ptsd_veterans.asp. Accessed March 10, 2017.
3.
Will My Fellow Vet Lose His Veterans Administration Benefits if He Uses Medical Marijuana to Help His PTSD? Drug Policy Alliance. http://www.drugpolicy.org/blog/will-my-fellow-vet-lose-his-veterans-administration-benefits-if-he-uses-medical-marijuana-help-. Accessed March 10, 2017.
4.
Veterans Still Can’t Discuss Medical Marijuana With Their VA Doctors. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/05/01/veterans-medical-marijuana_n_5244565.html. Published May 1, 2014. Accessed March 10, 2017.
5.
Ben-Zvi Z, Mechoulam R, Edery H, Porath G. 6 -hydroxy-  1 -tetrahydrocannabinol synthesis and biological activity. Science. 1971;174(4012):951-952. [PubMed]
6.
Cunha J, Carlini E, Pereira A, et al. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology. 1980;21(3):175-185. [PubMed]
7.
Shohami E, Cohen-Yeshurun A, Magid L, Algali M, Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;163(7):1402-1410. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01343.x
8.
General use of cannabis for PTSD Symptoms | VMCA . Veterans for Medical Cannabis Access. http://veteransformedicalmarijuana.org/content/general-use-cannabis-ptsd-symptoms. Accessed March 11, 2017.
9.
Bouton ME. Context and ambiguity in the extinction of emotional learning: Implications for exposure therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1988;26(2):137-149. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(88)90113-1 [Source]
10.
VA, NIH seek alternatives to addictive opioids . U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. https://www.research.va.gov/pubs/varqu/fall2014/fall14-3.cfm. Published 2014. Accessed March 11, 2017.
11.
Toblin RL, Quartana PJ, Riviere LA, Walper KC, Hoge CW. Chronic Pain and Opioid Use in US Soldiers After Combat Deployment. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1400. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.2726
12.
Dr. Dustin Sulak on America’s Opiate Addiction Crisis and How Medical Cannabis Can Help. Project CBD. https://www.projectcbd.org/article/americas-opiate-crisis-how-medical-cannabis-can-help. Published July 25, 2016. Accessed March 11, 2017.
13.
Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry CL. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(10):1668. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005
14.
AP Eastern U.S. on Twitter. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APEastRegion/status/712276895258247169. Published March 22, 2016. Accessed March 11, 2017.
15.
More veterans using marijuana for PTSD. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/more-veterans-using-marijuana-for-ptsd/. Published March 22, 2016. Accessed March 11, 2017.
16.
Stoned Vets – Weediquette – VICELAND. VICELAND. https://www.viceland.com/en_us/video/stoned-vets/56cdd0654e3a0a6d5eaa13c3. Published March 8, 2016. Accessed March 11, 2017.
17.
Times A. Clinical trial using marijuana to treat PTSD in veterans gets underway. Army Times. https://www.armytimes.com/articles/clinical-trial-using-marijuana-to-treat-ptsd-in-veterans-gets-underway. Published February 7, 2017. Accessed March 11, 2017.
18.
MAPS – Marijuana for Symptoms of PTSD in U.S. Veterans. MAPS. http://www.maps.org/research/mmj/marijuana-us. Accessed March 11, 2017.

The Benefits of Terpenes in Cannabis Essential Oil

Most of us are familiar with essential oils. You have likely enjoyed the smell of lavender, sage or eucalyptus essential oil.

Essential oils are basically the juices extracted from plants either through steam distillation, CO2 Extraction or through a press.

The main therapeutic agent in essential oils are the terpenes.

Terpenes are the life force, the quintessential 5th element or the spirit of the plant. – Ethan Russo

They are delicate, organic compounds, known as phytochemicals or metabolites.

Physiologically, Terpenes are involved in Three Crucial Processes.

  • Communication between symbiotic organisms 
  • The Attraction of Pollinating Insects
  • Plant Interactions such as creating defense mechanisms for predators. 1

Terpenes are well known for giving the plant, its unique aroma signature. These essences activate the olfactory system, which when inhaled can send messages to the limbic system of your brain, resulting in a cascading effect of positive benefits.

These fragrances may release stored memories, change your mood, calm you down in stressful times, among other physiological and physical benefits.

Dr. Ethan Russo, Neurologist and Medical Scientist, suggests that “terpenes are potent agents for animal and human behavior transformation when inhaled at ambient air level serums.”

Russo mentions that terpenes are a crucial aspect of the entourage effect that is a significant component to the therapeutic qualities of the cannabis plant.

He believes that the crucial connection between cannabinoids and terpenes is what gives cannabis its healing power, for things like: cancer, epilepsy, viral infections, depression, anxiety, and addiction.2

Terpenes are foundational components to a thriving eco-system and optimal human health.

For example, Artemisia was a sesquiterpene used to fight Malaria. Another terpene known as Yew,  has been recognized for warding off ovarian and breast cancers. Terpenes extracted from Foxglove were used in over 1 million heart disease cases. 1

Depending on which terpenes are present in each cultivar the essential oil will have a unique essence and signature.  I’ve often heard in the industry that there are over 700 cultivars of cannabis! That is some serious medicine available to the human species. That’s why you can smell sweet, earthy, skunky, pine-like, and fruity cannabis among many other essences.

Here are just a few of the main terpenes present in the blossoms of cannabis essential oil and their respective health promoting benefits.

Cannabis Essential Oil Terpene Benefits | Infographic

Cannabis Essential Oil Terpenes Infographic

In order to distinguish which terpenes are in any given essential oil, a lab analysis should be done as there are over 200 known terpenes in the cannabis plant. There are well over 19,000 terpenes in the plant kingdom.

Lastly, terpenes are volatile and vaporize at even moderate temperatures. In the middle of a hot summer day, for example, you won’t smell the aroma as much. However, in the ambrosial hours when things are cool and a dew sets over the plants the pungent terpene aromas can be better experienced making it the best time to harvest medicinal plants – such as cannabis – rich with terpenes.

Australian Medical Cannabis Laws

Medical Cannabis in Australia

Pauline Hanson has become an unlikely hero to all those requiring medical Cannabis.

On January 8th, she directly lobbied Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to provide an amnesty to suppliers and users of medicinal cannabis.

This appeal came after police raided the Adelaide home of Jenny Hallam – a 44 year old woman who produces and gives away medicinal cannabis oil to people in need. Ms. Hallam has been reported for drug offenses and had equipment and products removed from her home.

Ms. Hallan tweeted out a case study of one Queensland child whose life would regress to a nightmare without the oil.

The girl’s father, Steve Peek, backed up these claims by saying their supplies are running low and now they fear for the health of their daughter:

“We only have enough to last until next week,” he said.

“Yesterday, to try and stretch it out, we didn’t give her the midday dose and at a quarter to six last night she started having seizures.”

More Patients Speak Out

Other patients who used Ms. Hallam’s oil have also spoken out in her defense.

Ben Oakley from Wollongong, said he uses the drug to relieve pain and life-threatening seizures he suffers from the rare neurological condition known as stiff person syndrome.

Mr. Oakley used to suffer from full-body spasms, more than 600 spasms over four years – some of which lasted as long as two hours.

In the 19 months since starting medicinal Cannabis, he has had only 3 spasms, which lasted no more than 20 seconds each.

“My supplier, a person who has changed my life, if not saved my life, Jenny Hallam, you are incredible,” he said.

“You’ve been able to give me the life I thought I was going to lose. It’s pretty disappointing the police have raided her and taken all of her crops.”

Mr. Oakley will run out of oil in a few months, and isn’t sure what will happen then.

It is believed that Ms. Hallam supplied oil to 200 people across Australia, and now they are all left in a similar situation. All this, because Australia has yet to change its laws on the legality of the Cannabis plant.

$34 Million Waste

After watching Cannabis Oil save their 3-year old granddaughter from nearly 1,400 seizures per day, Barry & Joy Lambert donated $34 Million to Sydney University for Medical Cannabis research. But so far, NOTHING WORTHWHILE has been done with their money.

Meanwhile, his own son has been charged with illegally producing cannabis oil to help save his family.
“They shouldn’t have to break the law,” Barry says. But saving a life is more important than following the law. His wife, Joy, adds: “So at 67 I decided I could be civilly disobedient and just do what was right for the children with epilepsy. That’s how I see it.”

But saving a life is more important than following the law, his wife Joy, adds: “So, at 67 I decided I could be civilly disobedient and just do what was right for the children with epilepsy. That’s how I see it.”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

Follow what activists like Jenny Hallan are doing, and support them where you can.

Ms. Hallan has recently tweeted that she launched  where you can register to receive her whole plant Cannabis oil products. You can hear an interview with Ms. Hallan on ABC Radio here.

Barry & Joy Lambert continue to support the Sydney University Lambert Initiative – where you can keep track of their progress.

However, the most important thing you can do is contact your government representative!

Federal Government

Contact the Prime Minister and urge him to intervene and help save these families. Contact his office on (02) 9327 3988.

Medicinal cannabis use is still illegal and only available through trials and limited special access schemes.

But, in late 2016, the Federal Government passed legislation legalizing the cultivation of cannabis for medicinal purposes.

Queensland

Queensland doctors will soon be able to prescribe it for their patients’ treatment. New laws will give certain specialists including oncologists, pediatric neurologists and palliative care specialists the right to prescribe medicinal cannabis from March 2017. Other doctors would be able to apply to Queensland Health for permission to prescribe the drug for patients with certain conditions.

Mail

PO Box 15185
City East
Queensland 4002

Email

Please use this form to contact by email.

Telephone

(07) 3719 7000

Fax

(07) 3220 6222

Tasmania

The State Government announced in April specialist medical practitioners would be allowed to prescribe the drug to patients suffering serious and chronic illness from 2017.

Contact Tasmania Premier Will Hodgman using this online form.

NSW

Contacting NSW Premier Mike Baird can be done through this online form.

In July, NSW Premier Mike Baird said 40 children in the state with the most severe cases of drug-resistant epilepsy would now have access to a cannabis-based treatment under a compassionate access scheme.

NSW is conducting a trial for patients suffering vomiting and nausea as a result of chemotherapy.

Western Australia

The WA Government previously said it would not conduct medicinal cannabis trials until it received the results of testing in New South Wales.

Contact WA Premier Colin Barnett:

Telephone

(08) 6552-5000

Fax

(08) 6552-5001

Northern Territory

Not legal. Contact Premier Michael Gunner on (08) 8947 1755 or using this online form.

South Australia

You can contact SA Premier Jay Weatherill by using this online form.

In April, SA Health Minister Jack Snelling ruled out changing the law in South Australia at this stage.

Victoria

It’s legal here. It was the first state to pass legislation legalizing the use of medicinal cannabis.
You can contact the Premiere by mail, email, telephone, fax, through the National Relay Service or using the contact form on this page

Mail

Office of the Premier
1 Treasury Place
Melbourne, Victoria
Australia, 3002

Telephone

(03) 9651 5000

Fax

(03) 9651 5054

Accessible phone options

If you are deaf, have a hearing or speech impairment, contact us through the National Relay Service (NRS):
TTY users phone 133 677 then ask for (03) 9651 5000
Speak and Listen users phone 1300 555 727 then ask for (03) 9651 5000
Internet relay users connect to the NRS then ask for (03) 9651 5000

 

Autism - boy covers ears

What’s The Answer to Autism?

In order to understand what is happening in an Autistic individual we must touch upon the critical role of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS).

A low-grade chronic infection is a primary challenge in autistic individuals – resulting in systemic inflammation. A pro-inflammatory state in both the brain and the gut are symptoms of Autism which points to a malfunctioning ECS. 

Our ECS is made up of lipids and receptors and is located in the brain, immune and nervous systems. The ECS regulates physiological systems, including appetite, pain, inflammatory response, thermoregulation, intra-ocular pressure, physical sensation, muscle control, energy balance, metabolism, sleep health, stress responses, motivation/reward, mood, and memory. 1

Autism and its relation to an imbalanced or inefficient ECS is one of the main research findings by the late great Doctor Bradstreet out of Melbourne, Florida. Stanford University research also shows us the powerful link to the ECS and Autism as well as studies put out by The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics.  2  3

Further research suggests that a gene mutation is present in autistic individuals blocking the body’s natural production of endocannabinoids. 4  This then results in behavioral challenges, issues with psychological development and imbalances in cognition.

Another key finding is that this gene mutation is what causes spastic communication instead of calm communication between pathways, this directly links to an inefficient ECS5

Take for example an Autistic person that displays an addiction to certain foods. The ECS regulates this type of impulse. An imbalanced ECS can cause irregular cravings as well as leaky gut. The ECS controls all of these physiological systems and without sufficient endocannabinoid production, it is challenging for the body to communicate properly.

Autistic individuals are also highly sensitive to environmental toxins because their system does not properly control toxins from passing through the gut lining as well as the blood-brain barrier.

This shows us a direct connection to a weak ECS. Their brain is susceptible to toxins because the ECS in the brain is malfunctioning, allowing toxins to pass the blood brain barrier causing irritation. Cannabinoids – like cannabidiol – help to seal the matrix of the brain and protect the neurovascular environment.    Because our ECS is also a part of the digestive system this same challenge happens with the gut wall; causing irritation and imbalances. It too must be sealed and cannabinoids help to accomplish this. 

With a restored and nourished ECS, a proper foundation is created leading to the healthy signaling of transmitters in the brain and gut.

The Solution:

Cannabinoids are a foundational part of a healthy and optimal functioning body.

Using extracted cannabinoids from the cannabis plant could be a therapeutic approach offered by nature. These fatty acid compounds help to:

  • Nourish the brain – ease inflammation
  • Seal the blood brain barrier from toxins, as well as
  • Heal the protein-tight-junctions in the gut so that pathogens do not get through.

With this improved state of one’s immune system, the signaling can be restored to optimal function and communication can operate in a healthy manner.

Research and real life examples show supplemental usage of cannabis oil helps to calm down these individuals and restore the ECS.

Here is an infographic sharing the importance of a well-nourished endocannabinoid system and its connection to Autism.   

*This article is dedicated to the late Dr. Jeff Bradstreet for his impeccable service to share his findings with the Autistic community.

1.
2.
Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism. Neurotherapeutics. http://petaleconsultancy.com/Endocannabinoid-Signaling-in-Autism.pdf.
3.
Dr. Jeff B. Understanding the Endocannabinoid System and Autism and therapeutics. Youtube Presentation. https://youtu.be/s8CbIvd8p4Q.
4.
Cannabis shows great promise treating autism. Natural Society. http://naturalsociety.com/cannabis-shows-great-promise-treating-autism-symptoms/.
5.
Mutations found in individuals with autism interfere with endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. Eurekalert. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-04/cp-mfi040513.php.
group-of-happy-doctors-at-hospital

Yes, Cannabis DOES Cure Cancer

I’m sure the title of this article will anger many people, and that’s ok. Just don’t dismiss this information before you’ve read it. We will present theories, evidence, facts, and hopefully lead you to the same conclusion; that yes, Cannabis really does cure cancer.

NOTE:

This article will be updated regularly to include new research and material as well as addressing objections and questions from skeptics.

There is No Cure for Cancer…

Believing that no cure for cancer exists is based on mistaking the word cure for the word panacea.
To cure simply means “to relieve (a person or animal) of the symptoms of a disease or condition.” 1
Whereas panacea means “a solution or remedy for all difficulties or diseases.” 2

Cannabis in not a panacea. It does not work every time, for every person, on every form of cancer. And yet, that is what too many people hear when we say cannabis cures cancer.

However, cannabis has been shown to cure some forms of cancer in some people some of the time. In fact, based on our research, we are prepared to make the claim that cannabis succeeds in curing cancer more than it fails to cure cancer. Not only does it work more than 50% of the time (some people say it works 80% of the time), it is also used to reduce the negative effects of other forms of cancer treatment, and its side-effects are almost completely positive. Those treated with cannabis have almost zero incidences of reoccurring cancer, and no lasting damage or scarring from the treatment. Let’s examine some of the evidence which supports these claims.

The Facts

Here we present many scientific studies showing the effects of cannabis on cancer in a laboratory setting. We will also cross-examine these facts with genuine questions from skeptics. If we have missed an important question, feel free to leave it in the comments and we can update this article with relevant questions.

Cannabinoids kill cancer cells

 

THC Molecule

A THC Molecule

A common statement made by cannabis supporters is that cannabinoids have been shown to kill cancer cells in laboratory experiments. 3

 

Rebuttal:

So does lemon juice, so does radiation. Just because they kill cancer cells in laboratory experiments doesn’t mean they will kill cancer cells in a human in any way that is beneficial.

Response:

Remarkably, cannabinoids target cancer cells, while non-tumor cells and tissues are avoided. 4
The key is how cannabis targets and kills cancer cells:

Cannabinoids have been shown to Selectively Trigger Autophagy in Cancer Cells

Autophagy is when cells digest and recycle damaged parts of themselves.56
Reduced autophagy is found in tumor cells and may be associated with the transformation of healthy cells into malignant tumor cells,7, 8 and is thought to be a predictor of tumor growth.9
In addition, necrosis and chronic inflammation are controlled and limited by autophagy, as any damage within the cell is consumed as an energy source.10 This helps prevent damaged cells from transforming into malignant tumor cells.101112  Recent research shows autophagy’s role as a tumor suppressor.713

Cannabis has been shown to specifically target tumor cells and trigger autophagy, 141516 while simultaneously protecting nearby healthy cells.17 This means cannabis triggers cancer cells to consume themselves without harming surrounding healthy cells, and in fact, protects healthy cells.4

Cannabinoids have also been shown to Selectively Trigger Apoptosis in Tumor Cells

CBD Molecule

A CBD Molecule

Apoptosis is a kind of programmed cell death mechanism.
Abnormalities in apoptosis that lead to early cell death or the absence of normal cell death have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders and cancer,18 19 as well as cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy.20 21

An important aspect of an effective anti-tumor drug is its ability to inhibit proliferation (rapid reproduction) of cancer cells. Cancer cells proliferate rapidly in an uncontrolled manner. Also, these cells escape death mechanisms which a normal cell undergoes like apoptosis.

Cannabinoids have been shown to selectively trigger apoptosis in tumor cells. 22 23  Cannabinoids actually interact with cancer cells on a molecular level and trigger them to self-destruct.22 All this without causing any harm to surrounding healthy cells, in fact, they protect and improve the health of surrounding cells at the same time.4

They have exhibited these anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on every form of cancer tested so far, including (but not limited to):

  • Bone cancer 22
  • Breast cancer 2223
  • Colon cancer 2324
  • Cervical cancer 25
  • Gastric cancer 26
  • Glioma (brain) cancer 2223
  • Head and neck cancer
  • Lung cancer 2223
  • Leukemia 2723
  • Lymphoma 2223
  • Oral cancer 22
  • Pancreatic cancer 22
  • Prostate cancer 22
  • Skin cancer 22
  • Thyroid carcinoma 2223

The powerful apoptotic and autophagic properties of certain cannabinoids has resulted in them being referred to as anti-tumor agents even among cancer researchers.3 The important fact to point out here is that cannabis has these anti-tumor effects without damaging any other cells in the body. Cannabis is anti-tumor while actually increasing the health of the rest of the body.4 28

 

Model of tumorigenesis

Model of tumorigenesis. The figure illustrates the formation of an invasive tumor and its metastasization to a distant organ via a blood vessel. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Cannabinoids Shrink Tumors and Prevent Spreading (Metastasis)

According to a study published in the British journal of clinical pharmacology in 2013; “Cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumor neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion, and metastasization.” 23

Rebuttal:

Awaiting rebuttal.

Response:

In addition to the anti-proliferative (autophagic) and pro-apoptotic effects of cannabinoids, they are also known to interfere with tumor neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion, and metastasization.23

Let’s look at each of these categories in more detail.

Tumor Vascularization

Tumours can grow to a size of approximately 1–2 mm3 before requiring direct blood flow.29  Tumor Vascularization is when a tumor is able to attract the growth of blood vessels from the supportive tissue around itself. Getting sufficient blood and oxygen is critical for tumor growth.

Studies are showing that cannabinoids can drastically reduce the growth of tumors by specifically inhibiting tumor vascularization – amazingly these effects are limited to cancerous cells.30 31  So cannabinoids prevent tumors from growing by directly preventing them from attracting blood vessels to themselves, without interfering with vascularization of surrounding healthy tissue.4

 

Tumor Cell Migration and Metastasis

When tumor cells detach from their surrounding tissue and migrate to other areas of the body (metastasis), they must rely on autophagy for their energy.32

Cannabinoids have been shown to selectively switch off autophagy specifically in tumor cells that have detached and begun migrating.3233  Thus cannabinoids both encourage autophagy in tumor cells when static, and discourage autophagy in tumor cells when metastatic – showing amazing adaptability in fighting cancer.34, 3536

Overview on the functional effects of Cannabinoids on Tumor Cell Migration

CannabinoidTumor TypeRegulation of Functional EffectSignal TransductionReferences
AEABreastReduced MigrationCB1 receptorJoseph et al., 2004 33
2-AGCervicalReduced MigrationCB1 receptorRudolph et al., 2008 37
THCCervicalReduced MigrationCB1 receptorRudolph et al., 2008 37
THCColonReduced MigrationCB1 receptorJoseph et al., 2004 33
THCGlioma, AstrocytomaReduced MigrationUnknownBlázquez et al., 2008 36
CBDGliomaReduced MigrationIndependent of G-protein-coupled receptorsVaccani et al., 2005 34
THCLungReduced MigrationInhibition of EGF-induced ERK1/2, JNK, AKT; increased phosphorylation of FAKPreet et al., 2008 35

– Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis 38

 

Cancer Cell Adhesion

Cells in our bodies have what are known as Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM) that allow them to attach to other tissues of the body.39  The ability of cancer cells to metastasize and spread to new areas of the body relies upon these cell adhesion molecules.40 Disrupting the CAMs of tumor cells has been widely researched as an effective anti-cancer therapy.41, 42

Cannabinoids have been shown to be effective at inhibiting the adhesion and invasion of cancerous cells throughout the body.38, 43, 35  These effects are noticed only in tumor cells and does not appear to affect the CAMs of healthy cells. 4 43

Overview on the functional effects of Cannabinoids on Tumor Cell Adhesion

CANNABINOIDTUMOR TYPEFUNCTIONAL EFFECTSIGNAL TRANSDUCTIONREFERENCES
THCAstrocytomaReduced AdhesionCannabinoid receptor-independent blockade of IL-1-induced up-regulation of cell adhesion moleculesCurran et al., 2005 44
THCBreastReduced AdhesionCB1 receptor; inhibition of FAK-, and Src-phosphorylation on collagen type IVGrimaldi et al., 2006 43
THCGliomaReduced AdhesionBlockade of IL-1-induced up-regulation of cell adhesion moleculesCurran et al., 2005 44
THCNeuroblastomaReduced AdhesionCB1 receptor; up-regulation of FRNK phosphorylationZhou et al., 2002 45

– Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis 38

Tumor Cell Invasion

Intravasation is the invasion of cancer cells through the basal membrane into a blood or lymphatic vessel. Invasion and metastasis are the greatest obstacles to successful tumor treatment.46  The greater the ability of a cancer cell to invade other membranes, the more malignant the cancer is considered.47

Cannabinoids have been shown to reduce the invasiveness of cancer cells, with some researchers even calling THC “anti-invasive” in reference to its cancer fighting ability. 48, 49, 50  Cannabinoids may therefore offer a therapeutic option in the treatment of highly invasive cancers without risk of damaging healthy cells.4 48

Overview on the functional effects of Cannabinoids on Tumor Cell Invasion

CANNABINOIDTUMOR TYPEFUNCTIONAL EFFECTSIGNAL TRANSDUCTIONREFERENCES
CBDBreastReduced InvasionId-1 down-regulationMcAllister et al., 2007 51
THCCervicalReduced InvasionCB1, CB2 receptors; TIMP-1 up-regulationRamer & Hinz, 2008 48
THCLungReduced InvasionCB1, CB2 receptors; TIMP-1 up-regulationRamer & Hinz, 2008 48
THCLungReduced InvasionInhibition of EGF-induced ERK1/2, JNK, AKT; increased phosphorylation of FAKPreet et al., 2008 35
2-AGProstateReduced InvasionCB1Nithipatakom et al., 2004 50

– Antitumorigenic Effects of Cannabinoids beyond Apoptosis 38

Tumor Metastases

Tumor cell migration, adhesion, and invasion are all parts of the progression of metastases. Collectively, cannabinoids reduce the expansion of tumor cells in several ways that are not yet fully understood. What is clear is that cannabinoids are antimetastatic – and cannabinoids prevent the spread of cancer in addition to killing cancer cells.38

Overview on the functional effects of Cannabinoids on Tumor Cell Metastasization

CANNABINOIDTUMOR TYPEFUNCTIONAL EFFECTSIGNAL TRANSDUCTIONREFERENCES
CBDBreastReduced MetastasesCa2+, ROSLigresti et al., 2006 52
AEABreastReduced MetastasesCB1 receptorGrimaldi et al., 2006 43
THCBreastDecreased Cell ProliferationUnknownSchlumpf et al., 2008 53
AEALungReduced MetastasesCB1 receptorPortella et al., 2003 54
THCLungReduced Metastasesnhibition of FAK-, ERK1/2- and Akt-phosphorylationPreet et al., 2008 35
THCSkin CancerReduced MetastasesInhibition of the Akt signal transduction pathwayBlázquez et al., 2006 55

 

Conclusion:

When an oncologist attempts to target a cancerous growth for treatment, they must understand what type of cancer it is, what stage it is in, where it is in the body, and more. One treatment that kills certain types of tumor cells may increase the growth and spread of other types of tumor cells. This is why oncology is such a difficult science.

The research presented here indicates that the cannabis plant contains compounds (cannabinoids) that can fight (apoptosis), prevent (autophagy), and even reverse (triggered autophagy) most types of tumor cells in addition to preventing the spread of cancer throughout the body (cancer cell migration, metastasization). All of this is achieved while causing no harm to healthy cells.4 28

It’s almost as if our body knows how to heal itself, and cannabis gives our body the tools it needs to heal itself of cancer.

The witnesses we present next will provide evidence that consuming the cannabis plant in a concentrated oil form delivers many different cannabinoids to the body. When given these cannabinoids in their natural form, they appear to help the body fight, prevent, and reverse cancer without the direction of an oncologist or any other specialist. We propose, based on this evidence, that cannabis simply helps increase the body’s natural defenses against all forms of cancer.

The Witnesses

Here we present testimony from several people who claim to have cured their cancer using cannabis oil. We will also cross-examine these witnesses with genuine questions from skeptics.

Sharon Kelly

Sharon Kelly poses with her scans before and after using cannabis oil

Sharon Kelly poses with her scans before and after using cannabis oil

54-year-old Sharon Kelly was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer. She was told that the cancer in her body had made its way to her lymph nodes and the lining of her stomach; and that she could expect to survive for somewhere between six and nine months.

She was informed that radiation and chemo-therapy were not valid treatment options for a patient with stage four lung cancer, as they would likely only make her sicker. Instead, they urged her to return home to husband and children to enjoy her remaining 9 months of life.

Without adequate help from the medical community, Kelly’s youngest daughter turned to the internet and began reading numerous testimonials from cancer patients who had found relief with cannabis oil. With nothing left to lose, Kelly decided to try it for herself and began taking a small dose orally several times a day.

After noting how tired she became after taking the oil orally, she began researching cannabis suppositories, or drug-administration systems that are inserted into the rectum, vagina or urethra. She found that this method didn’t make her tired, and that it allowed her to take the full recommended dose without complication.

She eventually upped her dosage to two grams per day, and paired the treatment with an alkalizing, clean-eating diet. Within a few months, her tumor had shrunk from 5cm to 2.1cm and her lymph nodes had retained their normal size. Her doctors noted the fluid surrounding her heart was also no longer visible.

After seven months of cannabis oil treatment, Kelly’s scans indicated she was completely cancer-free, shocking her oncologist and others familiar with her case. Now, 13 months after her initial diagnosis, Kelly remains cancer-free, and credits the use of cannabis oil for not only her otherwise unexplained recovery, but also her ability to live out the rest of her life amidst the love and comfort of her family.56

Corrie Yelland

Corrie Yelland in 2012In July of 2011, Corrie Yelland was diagnosed with Anal Canal Cancer (the same form of cancer that took Farrah Fawcett’s life). Following 2 surgeries, her cancer still remained. The only option offered was to endure a regime of radiation treatments.

The Anal Canal is considered “the worst area of the body to radiate.” The radiation beam will hit both the coccyx and pubic bone; potentially causing permanent damage.

Corrie was told she would suffer 2nd and 3rd degree burns vaginally, rectally, across her buttocks, as well as her entire “nether regions.” Additionally, there was a “good possibility” both her vagina and rectum would fuse shut from the burns and subsequent scarring.

Corrie told her doctor that she needed time to think it over before agreeing to the procedure. However, without treatment she was given only 2-4 months, possibly 6 months to live.

One day, Corrie was given a copy of Run From The Cure – by Rick Simpson. She describes what happened next:

“Here was this man, a seemingly super straight small town Nova Scotian, talking about these amazing results he had seen with in himself and other people taking Cannabis and curing themselves of a myriad of diseases including end stage cancers.
After hearing what Rick had to say, and watching the testimonials in the video, I was feeling some hope for the first time. For 2 weeks I did nothing but research cannabis as a medicine. I was stunned by the sheer number of studies on Pub Med indicating that cannabis indeed has the capacity to heal. I started using cannabis 2 months ago as per Rick Simpson’s protocol from his video. (He recommends starting out small, and slowly upping the dose so ones’ body becomes accustomed to it, without being high constantly. As a person who hasn’t smoked pot since my late teens, early 20’s, the non-high aspect appealed to me). I had huge hopes to cure my cancer, and embarked on my fight to live.”

She also began filling gelatin capsules with a mixture of the cannabis oil and olive oil and inserting them rectally. 2 weeks into the cannabis oil regime, Corrie noticed most of her pain was gone. Typically needing 10-15 Tylenol per day, she was down to just 1/2 a tablet per day.

On September 20, 2012, she returned to her surgeon. He examined her a total of 3 times just to make sure of the results. Finally his prognosis:

“It’s gone! I can’t find anything at all. If it wasn’t for the scar tissue I would never have known you had ever had cancer.”

No doctor, no radiation or chemotherapy, and Corrie had successfully cured her cancer with cannabis oil. 57

Here is Corrie’s official medical documentation:

The Verdict

If any of the information presented in this article is inaccurate, please contact us with corrections. If new information is discovered, please contact us with that information. However, until such new evidence is presented to us, we confidently declare:

Yes, Cannabis Does Cure Cancer.

Science is not just for “scientists” to do in a laboratory. Science is the only way to establish something as true or false, and experiments can be done in a lab or on a kitchen table. We have taken you through the scientific method in this article:

  1. We proposed a Hypothesis.
  2. We then tested this hypothesis by examining known facts and interviewing witnesses.
  3. Finally, it comes down to you to analyze whether the evidence supports our hypothesis or not.

Don’t let anyone tell you what is true or false, especially when your health or your life might depend upon it. Test their statement, analyze the evidence, and then decide for yourself.

If you enjoyed this article, please leave us a comment below (way below – there’s a LOT of references). Also, please share this information with anyone who might find it interesting.

Right now, cannabis is not legal for Millions of people to access. And those who can access it may not have access to reliable sources. The only way to change all of that is to spread accurate information about this plant. Educate yourself first, and then help us to educate others!

 

Thank you for your time and attention.
Sincerely,
DJ Nicke

 


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Old man suffers heart attack with grandson

What Everyone Must Know About Cannabis and Heart Disease

Increasing evidence is showing that CBD from the Cannabis plant is beneficial for cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis and heart disease. Most testing has been done on cannabidiol (CBD) and THC, yet other cannabinoids such as Anandamide have also been found to have positive effects on heart conditions.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, taking an estimated 788,000 lives per year in 2011.  Cardiovascular diseases take out more lives than all cancers combined.1 

Relaxing Arterial Walls

One of the main findings is how CBD helps to relax arterial walls, lessening tension in the blood vessels. 2 While it relaxes it also protects the arteries from inflammation.3  CBD is a natural way to reduce the metabolic issues of high glucose responses present in heart disease patients as well as diabetes, decreasing vein wall permeability.4

Reducing Inflammation

In heart disease and cardiovascular conditions, there is too much inflammation. New lab tests show the immune modulating and anti-inflammatory components of cannabinoids, coupled with the anti-oxidant effects, protect the heart specifically when tissue damage is present from lack of oxygen and blood supply. 

It also protects the heart from cardiomyopathy – a disease of the heart muscles causing hardening and thickening and lack of blood flow. 2 A very interesting finding was that CBD stopped endotoxin production.  These types of pro-inflammatory cytokines are exactly what cause heart conditions to progress; so inhibiting endotoxin production is a profound key to heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions. 5

Reducing Arterial Plaque

Arterial Plaque is a huge factor in heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular issues. When this plaque builds up throughout the arterial walls it makes it very challenging for the heart to pump blood. 

CBD also decreased the adhesion of plaque to arterial walls. This is a key finding, as this type of plaque build-up is one of the main causes of the progression of heart disease. 

The Research Is In…

Research and studies are showing a direct link between treating or even preventing health challenges like atherosclerosis – and the endocannabinoid system.  A study was conducted utilizing tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) on mice. It was evident that THC activated the CB2 receptors, which inhibited plaque formation within the arteries of the mice. Lab testing further revealed that low oral doses of THC, at about 1mg per day, resulted in the plaque build-up within the arteries halting its progression.6

We are seeing more and more studies suggest that our endocannabinoid system plays a large role in our body’s defense against cardiovascular diseases. 

In summary, CBD has the ability to calm inflammation in the vascular system, relax the arterial walls and work as an immune modulator and anti-oxidant while decreasing the amount of plaque build up in the walls of the arteries. These findings suggest yet another potent use for cannabinoids and cannabis.

Find out what forms of cannabis are legal where you live, and fight for the legalization of those that are not. Your life, or the life of someone you love, could very well be saved by this plant one day.

1.
Heart Disease: Scope and Impact. theheartfoundation.org. http://www.theheartfoundation.org/heart-disease-facts/heart-disease-statistics/.
2.
Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3579247/.
3.
Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? NCBI . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3579247/.
4.
The potential use of cannabidiol in the therapy of metabolic syndrome. akademiai. http://www.akademiai.com/doi/abs/10.1556/OH.2012.29308.
5.
Role of bacterial endotoxin in chronic heart failure: the gut of the matter. Pub Med. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510602.
6.
Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Nature. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v434/n7034/abs/nature03389.html.

Cracking the Cannabis Epilepsy Code

Epilepsy is a central nervous system and neurological disorder characterized by seizures, convulsions, and involuntary movements.1 The use of cannabis for epilepsy is nothing new. In fact, the first documented use of the hemp plant for this purpose was in 1,800 B.C.E in Ancient Sumer (modern day Southern Iraq). In these times neurologists would use Indian hemp to successfully control seizures amongst their patients.2

Seizures are initiated by brain cells that get overexcited and fire in an abnormal fashion.

One of the most interesting findings on cannabis and its therapeutic properties is how it activates retrograde signaling in the brain. Retrograde simply means moving backward. This reverse signaling process, unique to cannabinoids controls the output of neurons that fire and quiets down the over-excited neurons that cause convulsions and seizures.

Key Point: When a neuron is overstimulated, such as with epilepsy, having the ability to send a signal backwards to the signaling neuron is important to control and calm down the neurons. This is achieved through the use of cannabinoids as neurotransmitters.

As we now know CB1 receptors reside primarily on the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.3 Research shows that during a seizure, our endocannabinoid system becomes activated, especially the CB1 receptor proteins.45

The cannabis plant offers over 100 phytocannabinoids and an array of terpenoids that actually create what is known as the “entourage effect” (coined by S. Ben- Shabat in 1998) and can help supply the receptors with these crucial compounds.

The dosage of cannabis oil for epilepsy is patient specific. The mayo clinic suggests the following dosage for epilepsy (2014): “To treat epilepsy, 200-300 milligrams of CBD has been taken by mouth daily for up to 4.5 months.”

Dr. Geddy owner and founder of Gedde Whole Health, shares, “Some children are so sensitized to medications that they need to start at a very low dose, and give it plenty of time to work.”

Other clinical trials report that cannabinoids created an internal domino effect in the cell network, producing adaptive like capabilities to handle the seizures more effectively.

Some of the main benefits of cannabinoids for epilepsy include:

  • Mood Regulation
  • Enhancement of cognitive function
  • Anti-oxidant effects to protect the brain
  • Anti-inflammatory agent
  • Energy balance
  • Reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines

Through retrograde signaling, the endogenous cannabinoid system provides on demand protection against seizures and the cannabinoids from cannabis oil help to modulate the communication between each pathway.

There is no doubt epilepsy is influenced by the endocannabinoid system and the entourage effects of cannabis oil shows to be a promising remedy for this type of disease.

I would like to add that the US Government holds patents on Cannabis as a neuroprotectant. Perhaps consider this information when making an educated decision on the use of cannabis oil for neurological disorders. Up until now, a lot of funding has gone to finding ways to demonize the plant and so it is up to us to uncover the research on our own, honoring the antiquity and historical use of cannabis among medical doctors.

1.
Definition of EPILEPSY. Merriam-Webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/epilepsy. Accessed November 27, 2016.
2.
Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy. The New England Journal of Medicine. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1407304. Published September 10, 2015. Accessed November 27, 2016.
3.
Robertson S. Cannabinoid Receptors. News-Medical.net. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cannabinoid-Receptors.aspx. Published June 2, 2010. Accessed November 27, 2016.
4.
Cannabinoids: Defending the Epileptic Brain. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1176332/. Published May 4, 2004. Accessed November 27, 2016.
5.
Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics. http://cannabisclinicians.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Cannabinoids-and-Epilpsy.pdf. Published 2015. Accessed November 27, 2016.

Is Raw Cannabis a Superfood?

A “functional food” is a food that provides benefits in excess of nutrition.1  The number of vitamins, essential oils, complete essential amino acids, and perfectly balanced fatty acids found in raw cannabis has led experts like Dr. William Courtney to call weed a “dietary essential” and definitely a functional food.2

When unheated, raw cannabis causes none of the psychoactive effects associated with smoking it or consuming “decarboxylated” (heat treated) oil.
Dr. Jeffrey C. Raber explains:

“When you consume “raw” cannabis, that is cannabis which has not been heated, you are consuming the cannabinoid acids. THCA and/or CBDA. Look up tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, or cannabidiolic acid. Those are the A forms of the molecules you are consuming.” 3

Dr. Raber received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Southern California,4 so he knows a thing or two about chemistry.

When you heat cannabis, a chemical change occurs called decarboxylation.  This big word simply means removing the carboxyl acids of the cannabinoids.5 This is a process your body naturally does with amino acids, and also one it naturally does with cannabinoid acids. Decarboxylating the cannabinoids before consuming them is similar to injecting racehorses with ATP instead of feeding them sufficient amino acids.

It is not harmful to consume decarboxylated cannabinoids, but it’s not the most natural nor the most beneficial way to consume them.

In fact, Dr. William Courtney points out that humans can consume up to 100 times more cannabinoids in their raw acid form than when they are decarbed.6
He explains that euphoria is triggered in some people after consuming 5-10mg of THC. Consuming 20mg is enough to trigger dysphoria (paranoia) in most individuals. However, no psychoactive effects are noticed in doses of THCA as high as 2,000mg.6

 

So what is the best way of consuming this “dietary essential”?Juicing.

Juicing.
That’s right: Juicing fresh, raw cannabis is the best way to consume the plant.

Again, Dr. Jeffrey C. Raber Ph.D. explains:

“Juicing is working because it provides the cannabinoid acids, which are potent compounds that help regulate the endocannabinoid system in ways not fully understood just yet.” 3

Dr. William Courtney tells us

“The cannabinoids are fat-soluble, so at this point, we are trying to encourage people to put the cannabinoids into a drink that has a lot of fat content; something that has yogurt or ice-cream, or coconut milk or hemp milk. As you increase the fat content, then the cannabinoids can dissolve into that fat, which will elevate the amount that you can have per milliliter of juice.”

Hemp milk isn’t just a good choice because it’s in the cannabis family. Dr. Courtney continues:

“Hemp seeds (used to produce hemp milk) are an excellent source of the essential amino acids in a very balanced form, and it’s also a source of the essential fatty acids uniquely balanced in the exact ratio required by the human body.”

So the seeds provide us with all the essential amino acids (protein), along with perfectly balanced Omega 3, 6, and 9. Meanwhile, the flowers and leaves provide us with unique cannabinoid acids along with an incredible array of terpenes (essential oils) and flavonoids that provide a wide range of dietary benefits.

How Cannabinoids Benefit Your Body

Science is still coming to terms with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. That’s right, every living creature with a central nervous system has an endocannabinoid system, and we all produce cannabinoids inside our bodies (called endocannabinoids).

There was a time when science didn’t fully understand vitamins. When sailors spent too long at sea, they came down with an illness called Scurvy, what we now know to be vitamin C deficiency. There are some researchers who believe many modern illnesses may actually be symptoms of a cannabinoid deficiency.

As a medicine, cannabis has been shown to be effective in treating: multiple sclerosis, seizures, glaucoma, anorexia, nausea, neuropathic pain, ADD / ADHD, AIDS, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, asthma, several forms of cancer, the list goes on and on.7

CBD has been found to act as an antipsychotic, anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and a neuroprotectant.6

These same illnesses are treated when raw cannabis is consumed as a food.6

Unlike traditional neurotransmitters, which are pre-synthesized and stored in small “packages” called vesicles on each neuron; endocannabinoids are synthesized as needed by the lipids (fats) making up the neuronal cell wall.8
This means that consuming foods which supply the building blocks of cannabinoids is extremely beneficial for the treatment of ALL of these illnesses and their related symptoms.

There is no better source for the building blocks of cannabinoids than raw cannabis.

Cost and Availability

One of the biggest limiting factors in the ability to juice and consume raw cannabis is the cost. Most people simply could not afford what it would cost to regularly buy the amount of cannabis needed to juice and consume it every day.

On the other hand, experts like Dr. Courtney say that a “phenomenal number of people” are able to slowly wean themselves off of prescription medications within a few months of starting to consume cannabis. So that money that was going towards prescription meds could instead be used to purchase raw cannabis.

Another limiting factor is access. With current laws restricting the growth and sales of cannabis, most people wouldn’t even know where to look for fresh, raw cannabis.

With medical and scientific experts calling this plant a “dietary essential”6 – isn’t it time that we changed our laws surrounding cannabis?

The best thing you and I can do to help change these archaic laws is to first educate ourselves on the benefits, and then share that information with others.

Reading this article isn’t enough. Check our references, and try to prove this information wrong. In doing so, you may inadvertently prove it to yourself in a much deeper way.

Then, once you are confident in your knowledge, try sharing some of this information with people whom you think could benefit from it. Only when enough of us are active AND well educated can we truly make a difference.

Check out this video interview with Dr. William Courtney:

References:

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